How pointer to member functions in C++ is different ?

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The pointer to member functions in C++ is a special concept. Basically, this is somewhat different concept from an ordinary pointer.

An ordinary pointer is a variable that just holds a physical address to some memory location. In this way, a pointer may point to either a variable or to a function.

However, the pointer to member functions cannot hold any physical address. Instead, these pointer-to-member hold an offset inside the class. Interestingly, there cannot be an address inside a class, an address can correspond to an object which resides in memory.

How compiler generates physical address

When the program combines such class offset with starting address of some object, then compiler generates a real address.

#include <iostream> //main header using namespace std;//for namespace class MainFunda { int iVal; public: void setiVal(int x) { iVal = x; } int getiVal() { return iVal; } }; int main() { void (MainFunda::*ptr2Func1)(int) = &MainFunda::setVal; int (MainFunda::*ptr2Func2)() = &MainFunda::getVal; MainFunda a; //Object (a.*ptr2Func1)(5); MainFunda *ptra = &a; //Pointer-to-object int value = (ptra->*ptr2Func2)(); cout << "Value is : " << value << endl; return 0; }

The output is:

Value is: 5

The expression “a.*ptr2Func1” tells compiler to generate a physical address for this offset. Earlier, the compiler takes the address corresponds to object’s starting location in memory as base.

Using pointer to member for variable

To use a pointer to access data member, similar syntax can be used:

class MainFunda { public: int iVal; }; int (MainFunda::*ptr2data) = &MainFunda::val; cout << (ptra->*ptr2data) << endl;

Incrementing and Decrementing pointers to members

Pointer to member functions in C++ are very special type of pointers. The compilers do not expect any tempering with such objects. Therefore, program should not manipulate them, like, incrementing or decrementing them, like ordinary pointers. Finally, the compiler shall throw an error in such statements.

#include //main header using namespace std; //for namespace class MainFunda { int iVal; public: void setiVal(int x) { iVal = x; } int getiVal() { return iVal; } }; int main() { void (MainFunda::*ptr2Func1)(int) = &MainFunda::setiVal; int (MainFunda::*ptr2Func2)() = &MainFunda::getiVal; ptr2Func1++; ptr2Func2++; return 0; }

Output:

The compiler shall generate following message:

compiler error when incrementing pointer to member functions

Similar error shall come on doing pre-increment or decrement of such pointers.

compiler error when manipulating pointer to member functions

Pointer to member functions in C++ as function parameter

The program can pass pointer to member to function just like an ordinary pointer. Besides, there are 2 syntax to pass this:

Ordinary Syntax

void fun1( void(MainFunda::*p1)(int), MainFunda &ob1 ) { (ob1.*p1)(11); }

Typedef Syntax

This syntax creates a new typename. The following example shows that “PTR” is now a new “type”

typedef void (MainFunda::*PTR)(int); void fun2( PTR p, MainFunda &ob1 ) { (ob1.*p)(10); }

The following program illustrates how to pass the pointer to member in both cases.

#include <iostream> //main header using namespace std; //for namespace class MainFunda { int iVal; public: void setiVal(int x) { iVal = x; } int getiVal() { return iVal; } }; //Ordinary syntax void fun1( void(MainFunda::*p1)(int), MainFunda &ob1 ) { (ob1.*p1)(11); } typedef void (MainFunda::*PTR)(int); //Typedef syntax void fun2( PTR p, MainFunda &ob1 ) { (ob1.*p)(10); } int main() { void (MainFunda::*ptr2Func1)(int) = &MainFunda::setiVal; MainFunda ob; fun1( ptr2Func1, ob); //Passing to Ordinary Syntax cout << ob.getiVal() << endl; fun2( ptr2Func1, ob); //Passing to Typedef Syntax cout << ob.getiVal() << endl; return 0; }

Output:

example of using pointer to member functions in c++

Main Funda: Pointer to member functions in C++ are not address but they are an offset number in a class

Related Topics:

std::any in C++
Understanding Constant Variables
Why variable declaration should not be done at the start? 
Concept of Inline Functions
Understanding array version of new[] & delete[]
How to overload global version of new & delete ?
How to overload new & delete for a class?
Generic Lambda in C++14
Benefit of using “override” keyword?
What are Lambda?
Explaining C++ casts
How to stop compiler from generating special member functions?
 What are the drawbacks of using enum ?
Parametrized constructor
What is an explicit constructor ?
Basics of throwing and catching exception


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