Single Responsibility Principle: SOLID design Principles

Share the Article

What is Single Responsibility Principle

Single Responsibility principle is one of the basic principle for object oriented class designing. It is also contributing first “S” in SOLID acronym where S stands for Single Responsibility Principle. This principle tries to give future modifiability and maintainability to an application.

As it clear from the name, ” Single Responsibility” insists us to design a class to handle only single task. In other words, we should not create classes, such that they are doing multiple tasks or jobs. If our classes are handling multiple tasks then in future maintenance of such application will be very difficult. This is because updates done in one place of class will impact several places and leads to code pollution.

Basically, we should have only one reason or need for updating our class not multiple.

Why

Lets us try to understand the need of Single Responsiblity Principle by taking an example of an application performing below jobs:

  1. Selecting Computer components
  2. Assembly of components manually
  3. Dispatching assembled computer through Trains

Example not using Single Responsibility Principle

Lets us try to design above application without “Single Responsibility Principle” first.

Design a class Computer performing all 3 jobs:

class Computer { string m_cpu; string m_screen; string m_keyborad; public: void selectComponent(string cpu, string screen, string keyboard) { } void assembleComputer() { cout<< " Assemble component manually"<<endl; } void dispatchComputer() { cout<<"Computer Dispatch by Train"<<endl; } };

As seen above, we have designed a class Computer which is handling multiple tasks, such as, selecting components, assembling them and finally dispatching computer.

Below is the full application:

#include<iostream> //main header for io using namespace std; //for namespace class Computer { string m_cpu; string m_screen; string m_keyboard; public: void selectComponent(string cpu, string screen, string keyboard) { } void assembleComputer() { cout<< " Assemble component manually"<<endl; } void dispatchComputer() { cout<< " Computer Dispatch by Train"<<endl; } }; int main() //Client-code { Computer c1; c1.selectComponent("single core","Normal Screen","Keyboard"); c1.assembleComputer(); c1.dispatchComputer(); return 0; }

Suppose, now we have future requirement to update above application with below needs:

  • Add more components such as Speaker, Touch screen, Bluetooth headset
  • Assembly should happen in electrical mode also (not only manual)
  • Dispatch should support – Truck , Aeroplan, also

As seen above, only one class Computer is doing all jobs. Therefore, we need to update Computer class for all above cases. Whoever, maintaining Computer class needs to keep modifying it. Due to this our application is not easily adapting for future needs.

In order to write application which we can very easily adapt for future needs, the “Single Responsibility Principle” is the best suit.

How

Lets us try to design same application using “Single Responsibility Principle”.

Thumb rule – Give only one responsibility to one class and should have only one reason for getting updated.

Lets us try to update above application with above rule. Since above application is doing 3 jobs, such as, selecting components, assembling components and dispatching computer. Therefore, now we shall break down this and create one class for each responsibility as below:

First Job – Selecting Components

Firstly, design class Computer which handles only one job, i.e., selecting components:

class Computer { string m_cpu; string m_screen; string m_keyboard; public: void getComponent( ) { } };

Second Job – Assemble Computer

Secondly, design class AssemblyComputer which is also handling single job of assembly of components.

class AssemblyComputer { public: void assemblyComponent() { cout<< " Assemble component manually"<<endl; } };

Third Job – Dispatch computer

Finally, design class DispatchComputer to handle job of dispatching of computer.

class DispatchComputer { public: void dispatch() { cout<< " Computer Dispatch by Train"<<endl; }; };

Complete Example using Single Responsibility Principle

#include<iostream> //main header for io using namespace std;//for namespace class Computer { string m_cpu; string m_screen; string m_keyboard; public: Computer(string cpu,string screen,string keyboard){}; void getComponent() { } }; class AssemblyComputer { Computer *m_computer; public: AssemblyComputer(Computer *c1) { m_computer=c1; } void assemblyComponent( ) { m_computer->getComponent(); cout<< " Assemble component manually"<<endl; } }; class DispatchComputer { AssemblyComputer *m_assembledComputer; public: DispatchComputer(AssemblyComputer *a1) { m_assembledComputer = a1; } void dispatch() { m_assembledComputer->assemblyComponent(); cout<< " Computer Dispatch by Train"<<endl; } }; int main() { Computer c1("Single Core","Screen", "Keyboard" ); AssemblyComputer a1(&c1); DispatchComputer d1(&a1); d1.dispatch(); return 0; }

As seen above, now in our application each class is doing only single job. Therefore, future extensions are very easy to design. For instance, If there is an update in assembly part, then, other parts, like, dispatchComputer shall not get impacted.

Adding new requirements in same example

Lets us try to update above application by supporting different dispatch mode, i.e., through truck and aero plane (in addition to train)

#include<iostream> //main header for io using namespace std; //for namespace class Computer { string m_cpu; string m_screen; string m_keyboard; public: Computer(string cpu, string screen, string keyboard) { }; void getComponent() { } }; class AssemblyComputer { Computer *m_computer; public: AssemblyComputer(Computer *c1) { m_computer=c1; } void assemblyComponent( ) { m_computer->getComponent(); cout<< " Assemble component manually"<<endl; } }; class DispatchComputer { AssembleyComputer *m_assembledComputer; public: DispatchComputer(AssembleyComputer *a1) { m_assembledComputer =a1; } void dispatch(string dispatchmode) { m_assembledComputer->assembleyComponent(); cout<< " Computer Dispatch by "<<dispatchmode<<endl; } }; int main() //Client-Code { Computer c1("Single Core","Screen", "Keyboard" ); AssembleyComputer a1(&c1); DispatchComputer d1(&a1); d1.dispatch("Aeroplane"); return 0; }

As seen above, now we have updated dispatchComputer class. Here, the function dispatch(string dispatchmode) shall accept a string argument. Hence, with this minimal change in one class, new requirement is easily supported in above application.

Pros & Cons of Single Responsibility Principle

Pros

  • Firstly, it introduces loose coupling between classes, therefore, future adaptation is very easy.
  • Secondly, the code becomes very easy to understand and maintain. Clean code.
  • Finally, it becomes very easy to write unit test cases.

Cons

  • This needs very careful design approach, otherwise it may lead to too many classes. In worst case, every function may become one class.

Main Funda: Single Responsibility Principle promotes modularization of design.

Advanced C++ Topics

Singleton Design Pattern
Factory Method Design Pattern
Builder Design Pattern
How std::forward( ) works?
How std::move() function works?
What is reference collapsing?


Share the Article

22,005 thoughts on “Single Responsibility Principle: SOLID design Principles

  1. The other day, while I was at work, my cousin stole my iPad
    and tested to see if it can survive a forty foot drop, just so she can be
    a youtube sensation. My iPad is now broken and she has 83 views.
    I know this is entirely off topic but I had to share it with
    someone!

  2. Thɑnk you, Ӏ’ve recently been looking for informatіⲟn aрproximately
    tһis topic for ages and yourѕ iѕ thе bеst І have cɑme upon so far.

    Ꮋowever, ԝhat concerning tһe bottom line? Are you sսгe
    about the source?

    Alѕo visit my website fun things

  3. Effects of cyproterone and tamoxifen upon the hair waves in mice buy priligy 30 mg x 10 pill You do not need to eat perfectly in order to breastfeed successfully, nor do you need to eat perfectly in order to have a safe pregnancy; however, pregnancy and breastfeeding deplete your body of key nutrients

  4. Hey fantastic blog! Does running a blog similar to this take a massive amount work?
    I’ve no knowledge of computer programming however I had
    been hoping to start my own blog in the near future.
    Anyways, should you have any ideas or techniques
    for new blog owners please share. I understand this is
    off subject but I simply had to ask. Cheers!

  5. Elaine had traveled across the state for the concert, as she was from St.
    She was then named playmate of the year in 1993 and got a gig as a Guess model.
    Also, the amount of pay that the writer receives may be very
    inconsistent, due to which he or she cannot rely
    completely on writing as a steady source of income.

  6. Wow, awesome blog format! Ꮋow long have yοu Ƅeen blogging fоr?
    you made blogging ⅼook easy. The entire ⅼoⲟk of youг
    website iss great, ɑѕ neatly as tһe content material![X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]І simply
    ϲouldn’t go away уour web site before suggesting tһat I extremely loved the
    standard informɑtion an individual provide іn your guests?
    Іs gⲟing to be agaіn often in orԁer to inspect new posts.

    My web site :: things to do in oahu

  7. What’s up i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anywhere, when i read this post i thought i could
    also create comment due to this sensible paragraph.

  8. Pretty component of content. I simply stumbled upon your site
    and in accession capital to assert that I acquire in fact loved account
    your weblog posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing for your augment and even I
    achievement you get admission to persistently fast.

  9. Ι’m also commenting tⲟ make yoս be aware of ԝһat a gгeat encounter
    my princess enjoyed ɡoing through yⲟur webblog. Ⴝhe mastered tоo many details, not to mention hoow іt
    is liқе t᧐ haѵe ɑ marvelous coaching character
    tߋ make the mediocre ⲟnes ԝithout difficulty learn а variety ߋf tricky things.
    You really did more than heг desires. Thanks foг offering such
    necеssary, dependable, edifying and even fun thoսghts on your topic
    to Jane.

    Ⅿү web blog: things to do near lake weiss alabama

  10. My brother suggested І may ⅼike this website.
    Hе was entirely right. Tһiѕ put up truly made my daʏ.
    You can not believe јust how mᥙch time I hаd spent
    for thiѕ info! Тhank y᧐u!

    Ηere іs my web-site :: tһings tо do in mobile alabama for
    families (Winnie)

  11. No Deposit Bonus: Exclusive 25 free spins; bonus code ‘CB25SPINS’. The wagering requirements are 60x and the max cashout is $180 AUD. 1st Deposit Bonus: 200% up to $2000 + 50 free spins on Bubble Bubble 2; bonus code ‘OZWELCOME-B’. Wagering Requirements: 30x and 20x for the free spins. Min Deposit: $20 New Players Only T&C’s Apply Bitstarz Casino, the award-winning casino that is giving every new player the chance to win big with their 20 Free Spins No Deposit Bonus. When you start depositingng, look forward to a 125% Match Welcome Bonus and 180 Free Spins. A bitcoin casino free spins no deposit bonus is a form of Cryptocurrency free spins. The bonus amount of deposit free spins awarded is not as great as with the free spins and first deposit bonus. The players often receive 10, 20, or 30 spins. https://letibri.com/index.php/community/profile/raymondhartley/ Sewers, brainless living dead, and a young boy appearing to carry a Polaroid camera everywhere he goes all combine to present a unique setting for a video slot game. The game displays 5 reels and 50 paylines surround the Bitcoin slots game for a different betting experience. Players can also increase their gifts of real mBTC by referring other games to the virtual casino. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * NetEnt also has a mobile gambling platform called NetEnt Touch for iOS and a Live Dealer Casino platform called Net Entertainment Live Casino, then check out our Dunder Casino Review and Rizk Review. Surely, the crypto sportsbook is going to change the future of the online gambling world. They prefer to offer attractive bonuses, which have, in fact, a lot of strings attached to them. Additionally, you’ll get online casino bitcoin 77 free spins to use on Platinum Lightning Deluxe 96. Our in depth Parmatch review details all the reasons we liked testing this online gaming establishment. You can also use a whopping six other altcoins to play their real money games. It offers instant withdrawals.

  12. We stumbled over here coming from a different website and thought
    I might as well check things out. I like what I see so now i’m following you.
    Look forward to looking over your web page again.

  13. Hey there! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing many months of
    hard work due to no backup. Do you have any solutions to prevent hackers?

  14. Hey! Quick question that’s completely off topic.

    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My site looks weird when browsing from my iphone4.
    I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able to
    resolve this problem. If you have any suggestions,
    please share. Cheers!

  15. Right here is the perfect blog for everyone who wants to understand this topic.
    You realize so much its almost tough to argue with you
    (not that I really would want to…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new
    spin on a topic that’s been written about for a
    long time. Excellent stuff, just excellent!

  16. I think that what you published was very reasonable.

    However, what about this? suppose you added a little content?
    I mean, I don’t want to tell you how to run your blog, but what if
    you added a post title to maybe grab a person’s attention? I mean Single Responsibility Principle:
    SOLID design Principles | Main Funda is a little vanilla. You could glance
    at Yahoo’s home page and note how they create article titles to grab people to click.
    You might add a video or a pic or two to get readers interested
    about everything’ve written. In my opinion, it would make your
    blog a little livelier.

    Feel free to visit my web-site – used sportbike parts

  17. We absolutely love your blog and find many of your post’s to be just
    what I’m looking for. Do you offer guest writers to write content for you?
    I wouldn’t mind publishing a post or elaborating on a lot
    of the subjects you write concerning here. Again, awesome web
    log!

  18. Thɑnks foг your marvelous posting! Ι actuаlly enjoyed reading
    іt, уoᥙ are a ցreat author. I will bе ѕure to
    bookmark your blog and will eventually сome Ьack in the future.
    I want tо encourage you to ultimately continue ʏour great writing, һave
    a nice afternoon!

    Ꮋere is my web site :: great beach vacations

  19. 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노
    바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임
    카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트
    온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트
    온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라
    바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트
    온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노
    바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라
    사이트포럼

  20. Does your website have a contact page? I’m having a tough time locating it but,
    I’d like to send you an e-mail. I’ve got some suggestions for your blog you might
    be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look
    forward to seeing it improve over time.

  21. Hey there! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this website?

    I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had problems with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives
    for another platform. I would be fantastic if you could point
    me in the direction of a good platform.

  22. What i do not understood is in truth how you’re now not actually much
    more smartly-favored than you might be now. You are very intelligent.
    You understand therefore significantly in the case of this topic,
    produced me for my part believe it from a lot of various angles.
    Its like women and men are not involved unless it’s something
    to accomplish with Lady gaga! Your individual stuffs great.
    All the time take care of it up!

  23. Howdy would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m looking to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a difficult time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs
    and I’m looking for something completely unique.
    P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

  24. Wonderful gopods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you’re just too magnificent.
    I actually like what you’ve acquired here, really like
    what you are saying and the way in which you sayy it.
    You make it entertaining andd you still take care of tto keep it
    wise. I cant wait to read muhch more from you. This iss
    really a grteat site.

    Feel free to surf to my web page … pmp training (Grant)

  25. I feel that is one of the so much vital info for me.
    And i’m satisfied studying your article. However want to statement on some general things, The
    site taste is perfect, the articles is really excellent
    : D. Good task, cheers

  26. OMG! This is amazing. Ireally appreciate it~ May I show my hidden information on a
    secret only I KNOW and if you want to with no joke truthfully see You really have
    to believe mme and have faith and I will show how to get connected to girls for
    free Once again I want to show my appreciation and may all the blessing goes to you
    now!.

  27. It’s very simple to find out any matter on net as compoared
    to books, as I found this piece oof writing at this site.

    Feel free tto surf tto my website – latest hcl placement preparations,
    Tahlia,

  28. Simply want to say your article is as astonishing.
    The clearness in your post is just great and i can assume you are an expert on this subject.
    Well with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep updated with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

  29. We are a group of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in ouur community.
    Your site provided us with helpful information to work on. You’ve performed a
    formidable activity andd our whole community will be grateful
    to you.

    Here is my website; pmp exam (Kaitlyn)

  30. 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임
    카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라
    바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라
    바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라
    사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임
    카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼 메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트
    온라인카지노 바카라 바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼
    메이저카지노 메이저카지노 카지노게임 카지노 카지노사이트 온라인카지노 바카라
    바카라사이트 온라인바카라 사이트포럼

  31. Hi great website! Does running a blog similar to this require
    a large amount of work? I’ve very little understanding of computer
    programming however I had been hoping to start my
    own blog soon. Anyways, should you have any ideas or techniques for new blog owners please share.
    I know this is off topic nevertheless I simply needed
    to ask. Appreciate it!

  32. Hi Dear, are you really visiting this web page daily, if so after that you will without doubt take good knowledge.

    Feel free to surf to my web page – vwin

  33. I don’t even know the way I finished up right here, however I believed this submit was good.
    I do not understand who you’re but definitely you’re
    going to a famous blogger should you are not already.
    Cheers!

  34. I am really inspired together with your writing talents as
    well as with the layout in your weblog. Is this a paid
    subject matter or did you customize it your self?

    Either way keep up the excellent high quality writing, it’s uncommon to see a
    nice weblog like this one today..

  35. Thank you a lot for sharing this with all folks you really uunderstand what you are
    speaking about! Bookmarked. Kindly additionally seek
    advice from my web site =). We may hawve a liink alternate arrangement between us!

    My web site – ap exam (Albertha)

  36. First of all I would like to say terrific blog!
    I had a quick question that I’d like to ask
    if you don’t mind. I was curious to find out how you center yourself and
    clear your mind prior to writing. I’ve had a tough time clearing my
    mind in getting my ideas out there. I truly do enjoy writing however it just seems
    like the first 10 to 15 minutes are generally lost simply just trying to
    figure out how to begin. Any recommendations or hints?
    Many thanks!

  37. I always show love to the people for sharing this.
    So let me give value back and give out my value to change
    your life and if you want to have a glance?
    I will share info about how to learn SNS marketing I am always here for yall you know
    that right?

  38. 이러한 좋은 정보는 항상 감사드립니다 아시죠?
    저도 똑같이 가치를 제공하고 싶은데요 정말 감사드리고싶습니다.
    혹시 9/11테러는 조작일까? 누구나 궁굼해햐는 이러한 멋진 정보를 제가 드리겠습니다.
    저를 한번 믿고 그냥 따라와주세요!

  39. Hey I am so delighted I found your blog, I really found you by
    error, while I was researching on Aol for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just
    like to say thanks for a fantastic post and a all round exciting blog
    (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all at the moment but
    I have bookmarked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time
    I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the awesome work.

    Also visit my page – junkyard in san antonio

  40. Having read this I thought it was very informative.
    I appreciate you finding the time and effort
    to put this short article together. I once again find myself spending way
    too much time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was
    still worth it!

  41. I’m not sure where you are getting your info, but good topic.
    I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more.
    Thanks for magnificent information I was
    looking for this info for my mission.

  42. Excellet website. A lot of helpful info here. I am sending it too some buddies ans also sharing in delicious.

    And obviously, thanks to your effort!

    Feel free to surf to my site; practoce exam [Mariana]

  43. Hi, I do think this is an excellent blog. I stumbledupon it
    😉 I am going to return yet again since i have bookmarked it.
    Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be
    rich and continue to guide others.

  44. Cannabis can be used for either medical or recreational purposes. The difference is really in the use. When we talk about medical cannabis, it’s in reference to cannabis being used to alleviate symptoms of various health conditions and diseases under the guidance of a physician and with the right authorization. Recreational cannabis, however, is not used to serve any medical purpose. Bodystream has optimized Virtual Health by providing a blend of familiar process and the modern conveniences of remote assessments. Book your appointment with a live person who is looking forward to helping you the old fashion way then meet with a physician from the safety and comfort of your home from anywhere in Canada! Download the form and print it, or fill it out in Adobe Reader XI or higherOpens a new website in a new window (not your browser) and save. Complete the plan member section. https://keycs.org/housing-talk-public-forum/profile/lavondamacghey0/ The Ontario Cannabis Store says the number of authorized marijuana retailers open for business in the province increased by 20 per cent between Oct. 1 and Dec. 31, compared to 34 per cent in the three months prior. Subscribe to receive our newsletter to stay up to date on Spectrum Therapeutics and current information on medical cannabis and health. You can unsubscribe at any time. Whether you’re brand new or an old pro, our cannabis content library has you covered In the wake of the breach, the OCS says it has also restricted access to internal data reports and notified the police who will review and investigate the misuse of the data. Government of Canada – legal non-medical cannabis Closes share-sale transaction with Final Bell Canada Inc. following Starseed Medicinal’s full production and product fulfillment move to Company’s consolidated…

  45. I’ve recentky started a website, the infgo you offer on this web sire has helped me greatly.
    Thank you for all of your time & work.

    Feeel free to surf to my web blog; exam materiaals preloaded – Johnette

  46. 25mL Tablet, film coated Lozenge Oral 5 mg Suspension Syrup Oral 15 mg 5ml Tablet 15 mg Tablet, coated Oral 30 mg Tablet, coated Oral 15 mg Tablet, sugar coated Oral 15 mg Syrup Prices Unit description Cost Unit Modicon 28 28 0 cialis coupon

  47. Hmm is anyone else experiencing prooblems wityh the images on this blog loading?
    I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog.
    Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.

    my website … pmp exam preparation –sldonline.Org,

  48. Instruct patients or caregivers to apply the transdermal system to clean, dry, intact, healthy skin with minimal hair sparse, fine hair is okay and to rotate the application site in order to minimize skin irritation priligy review youtube I am forever changed with this experience but I m sure I will love again and cry again

  49. 정품 비아그라,비아그라구매,비아그라구입,처방전없이 초간편주문.합리적인가격.비아그라 퀵배송,비아그라온라인약국,시알리스.각종 발기부전치료제 판매 전문 온라인스토어 13년동안 단 1건도 가품판매에 관한 스캔들이 없는 믿을수 있는 스토어 입니다.

  50. Comparing the direction of individual metabolite changes for the 4A and VP16 HBM mutants Figure 2 figure supplement 1C, we note that a significant portion of the metabolite changes detected by both the RPLC and HILIC methods are in the same direction for the two MYC mutants 5 mg cialis generic india

  51. {Antibiotika|Antibiotika gegen Uti|Uti-Antibiotika|rezeptfreie Antibiotika|natürliche Antibiotika|Antibiotika gegen Nebenhöhlenentzündung|können Sie Antibiotika trinken|Antibiotika gegen Halsentzündung|Antibiotika gegen Ohrenentzündung|Antibiotika und Alkohol|können Sie während der Einnahme von Antibiotika Alkohol trinken |Antibiotika gegen Zahninfektionen|Beta-Lactam-Antibiotika|Was sind Antibiotika|Antibiotika gegen Nasennebenhöhlenentzündung|Makrolid-Antibiotika|Alkohol und Antibiotika|Machen Antibiotika müde|Antibiotika gegen Lungenentzündung|Breitbandantibiotika|Antibiotika für Hunde|OTC-Antibiotika|Antibiotika für Fische|wie lange dauert es bis antibiotika wirken|nebenwirkungen von antibiotika|antibiotika für hunde|antibiotika gegen halsentzündung|antibiotika nebenwirkungen|trinken von antibiotika|sulfaantibiotika|prophylaktische antibiotika|antibiotika gegen bronchitis|wie man bv ohne antibiotika loswird|wie Antibiotika wirken|Ohreninfektions-Antibiotika|topische Antibiotika|Antibiotika gegen Chlamydien|Tetracyclin-Antibiotika|Arten von Antibiotika|über t Antibiotika gegen Zahninfektionen|Antibiotika bei Bronchitis|Können Antibiotika müde machen|Cephalosporin-Antibiotika|Häufige Antibiotika|Antibiotika bei Fischen|Hefeinfektion durch Antibiotika|Antibiotika bei Nierenentzündung|Was Antibiotika behandeln Uti|Liste von Antibiotika|Können Antibiotika Hefeinfektionen verursachen? |Antibiotika gegen Harnwegsinfektionen|Antibiotika gegen Furunkel|Uti-Behandlung ohne Antibiotika|kann man mit Antibiotika Alkohol trinken|Uti-Behandlung Antibiotika|kann ich während der Einnahme von Antibiotika Alkohol trinken|Chlamydien-Antibiotika|Halsentzündungsbehandlung ohne Antibiotika|Wie lange dauert es, bis Antibiotika wirken? |antibiotika gegen akne|können sie während der schwangerschaft antibiotika einnehmen|können sie während der antibiotikabehandlung trinken|wie man antibiotika gegen uti bekommt, ohne einen arzt zu konsultieren|liste der antibiotika gegen nasenhöhlenentzündung|uti kommt direkt nach den antibiotika zurück|mrsa antibiotika|als gab es die antibiotika erfunden|wie lange bleiben Antibiotika in Ihrem System|Fluorchinolon-Antibiotika|Antibiotika für Katzen|Antibiotika def Einleitung|iv Antibiotika|frei verkäufliche Antibiotika|wie lange wirken Antibiotika|Antibiotika bei Divertikulitis|Aminoglykosid-Antibiotika|können Antibiotika Durchfall verursachen|Z-Pack-Antibiotika|Antibiotika und Empfängnisverhütung|bv Antibiotika|können Antibiotika Uti verursachen|Antibiotika bei Katzen| Verursachen Antibiotika Pilzinfektionen|Kann ich Antibiotika trinken|Antibiotika gegen bv|Was bewirken Antibiotika|Wofür werden Antibiotika verwendet|Antibiotika gegen Streptokokken|Cellulitis-Antibiotika|Antibiotika gegen Halsschmerzen|Antibiotika-Namen|Niereninfektionsbehandlung ohne Antibiotika|Ohrenentzündung Antibiotikaliste|Können Sie Probiotika mit Antibiotika einnehmen|Wie lange dauert es, bis Antibiotika wirken|Wie lange dauert eine Covid-Pneumonie nach Antibiotika|Kann man Alkohol auf Antibiotika trinken|Chinolon-Antibiotika|Antibiotika, die C-Diff verursachen|Verfallen Antibiotika?

  52. I’ve been absent for some time, but noww I remember why I used
    to love this blog. Thanks, I will try annd check back more often. How frequently you update your website?

    My web-site: online pmp exam preparation (Alvin)

  53. Po pierwsze, sprawdzaj znacznie częściej niż pasuj. W tej odmianie pokera opłaca się zaryzykować wejście częściej, niż pozornie się wydaje. Czysto teoretycznie, powinieneś blefować co piątą – szóstą partię, co wynika z obliczeń dostępnych układów kart. Aż w 82% przypadków rozdań opłaca się wchodzić w grę i śmiało mierzyć się z krupierem. a.Poker: ten układ przewyższa wszystkie inne. Składa się z sekwencji zaczynającej się od Asa (tu najstarsza karta) w jednym kolorze. Pulę pieniędzy, bądź żetonów, które uzbierały się w trakcie rozdania na stole zabiera ten gracz, który zdołał zebrać najlepszy układ kart. Zawodnicy pokazują swoje karty od pierwszego na lewo od rozdającego zgodnie z ruchem wskazówek zegara. Wszyscy uczestnicy gry używają tych kart w połączeniu ze swoimi kartami zakrytymi do ułożenia jak najlepszego 5-kartowego układu pokerowego. https://www.friendscampus.com/community/profile/kimberlyzieseme/ Prosimy nie reagować na fałszywe wiadomości od Ministerstwa Zdrowia zachęcające do logowania się na swoje konto bankowe, bądź przelewania środków za pośrednictwem stron podszywających się pod operatorów płatności. Dziesięć lat temu większość graczy chodziła do klubów naziemnych lub grała w automaty online. Obecnie użytkownicy preferują smartfony i inne technologie do gier. Ponad 80% tych, którzy odwiedzają Kasyno Online, korzysta ze sprzętu do gier.Interfejs używany przez nowe kasyna mobilne został zmodyfikowany, aby ułatwić rejestrację, doładowanie konta, grę za gotówkę i wypłacanie wygranych. Programy, które można pobrać z oficjalnej strony Kasyna, to kolejna korzyść. Aplikacje zapewniają przyjemniejsze wrażenia z gry przy mniejszym zużyciu energii.

  54. To address these concerns, the DBCG performed an analysis of patients with one to three positive lymph nodes from the DBCG 82b and 82c studies but in which they excluded patients with fewer than eight nodes removed black viagra pills review Mesterolone Fat Loss Proviron Mesterolone What to expect from a cycle

  55. During perimenopause, you can start to lose some bone mass, but the risk of significantly decreased bone density is greatest right before and several years after menopause nolvadex Larger studies representing different populations are needed to determine the role of this polymorphism in response to antifolates and antimetabolites and to conclusively define its role in disease

  56. hiking, walking in nature as a recreational activity. Especially among those with sedentary occupations, hiking is a natural exercise that promotes physical fitness, is economical and convenient, and requires no special equipment. Because hikers can walk as far as they want, there is no physical strain unless they walk among hills or mountains. Hiking is a great sources of pleasure for us besides being beneficial for health. Once we leave the crowded streets of a city and go out for a walking tour away from the mad world, we really feel free. By the time we had settled in and eaten dinner, it was roughly 8-9 PM and we were left with an hour or two of late summer sunlight.  As we had just spent nearly two full days journeying to this glacier, the anticipation to see it up close was building.  The three of us collectively decided to hike that evening to the snout of the glacier, which was roughly 2.5 miles from our campsite.  Along with an assortment of camera gear, I stuffed a can of bear spray into my day pack.  In a little over an hour, this simple decision would probably save my life.  http://exceltotally.com/profile/mariettacamacho/ When you pay for your essay, it should be understood that the paper is to be used as an example of what your task should look like and how it should be structured. Orders delivered by EssayService are not intended to be used as a final work; this would be contrary to institution’s policy, and we cannot condone this. The market of services offering the possibility to pay someone to write essays is full of offers. No wonder there are thousands of students, and they do need help. However, picking a decent company might be tricky. Here, at Paytowriteessays, we have done this task for you. We have analyzed numerous services in the niche and come up with the above list of the top companies to which you can entrust your assignments. Here are the most crucial criteria that we are evaluating: It depends on the type of assignment. Unfortunately, subjects such as statistics, chemistry, physics, mathematics, algebra, and other technical subjects require lengthy thinking. In this case, we cannot guarantee that your paper will be written. If you have a technical order, it would be wise to contact our customer support team. We can write your essay fast on any topic and subject. When you want high-quality essays, Gradecrest leads the way!

  57. Sonia Kashuk makes reliably good and affordable bags in all manner of patterns and textures, and makeup artist Dana Delaney likes the bags because of their compartments that keep tools and products separate. They’re “perfect for traveling,” she says, and for keeping products organized at home, too. These beauty bags, makeup train cases, and organizers come in all sorts of colors, sizes, and fun patterns, but aesthetically pleasing designs aren’t the only thing these nifty bags offer. At the end of the day, the most important aspect is storage — which you’ll find an abundance of, considering most of these picks (including the smaller ones) have quite a few compartments, slots, and pockets for your items. All bags Whether you’re a professional makeup artist or you just have more lipsticks and blushes than space, this bag will help keep all your products organized and ready for wherever you need to go. The multiple compartments with mesh paneling make for easy access when creating looks and the sturdy straps mean easier travel. https://afro-botanics.com/community/profile/valentindeverea/ Featuring a long-lasting pigmented formula, this black eyeliner has an easy-to-apply, pen-style nib, allowing you to create thick feline flicks and defined lines for a smudge-proof finish. Apply a thin line along the lash line and inner rim or smudge outside the rim for a sultry, smoky effect. This gratifying, color-intense liner doesn’t flake or fade and adds a unique touch to any look. BETTER THAN SEX EYELINER Top Tip: Focus on the upper eyelid and corners by smudging and building up your eye shadow and where you focus your eyeliner. About Face Line Artist Eyeliner Swatches (x13) Eyeliner Cream Pot Gucci’s baby-blue liner offer a playful way to embrace the trend. Use it as both an eyeshadow and eyeliner; for the former, blend out with a fluffy brush straight after applying to create a pigmented wash of colour.

  58. Отзывы женщин, в косметичке которых всегда присутствует гель для бровей, помогут выбрать для себя правильный косметический продукт и понять, как пользоваться тем или иным видом геля. Гель для укладки бровей — современный косметический продукт, который помогает создавать актуальные повседневные и вечерние макияжи. С его помощью можно придать бровям желаемые оттенок и форму, уложить и зафиксировать волоски. Правильно подобранный гель предоставляет возможность красиво и аккуратно оформлять брови, экспериментировать с образами. Наш интернет-магазин предлагает широкий ассортимент фиксирующих гелей для бровей и ресниц. Любой можно приобрести, добавив в корзину и оформив заказ онлайн. Настя: Пользуюсь этим гелем не знаю сколько лет, в сторону других даже не смотрю. Покупаю сразу по несколько штук. Отлично фиксирует волоски и незаметен на бровях. В этой категории гели для бровей, которые одновременно фиксируют укладку бровей и придают им цвет. Оттенки могут колебаться от светло-коричневого до черного в зависимости от пигмента, содержащегося в составе. Чаще всего компания производит несколько цветов в одной линейке, но есть исключения. Так черные гели встретить сложнее, чем коричневые и серо-коричневые. https://miuces.com/foro/profile/kristidumaresq9/ И, конечно, стоит найти именно свою помаду. Мы подобрали для тебя несколько отличных примеров помадки для бровей, которая наверняка тебя не разочарует. Исправление. Помада для бровей обладает иной консистенцией и требует плотно набранной по ворсу кисти. Кисть для сухих теней добавит сложности, одна из которых – тяжело растушевать помаду. Моя любимая для этих целей – Anastasia Beverly Hills Angeled Cut Brush Small #15 Масло Ши защищает нежную кожу губ от ветра и холода, а комплекс Витаминов Е и F является естественным защитным барьером против солнца и вредного воздействия окружающей среды. Цвет. Для холодного цветотипа кожи подбирайте холодные оттенки, для теплого – теплые. Блондинкам рекомендуется выбирать оттенок помадки на 1-2 тона темнее волос, а брюнеткам – на тон светлее. Русым девушкам подойдут серо-коричневые оттенки. Для обладательниц рыжих волос подойдут теплые коричневые цвета помады для бровей.

  59. 苹果的德州扑克又回来了!为了庆祝App Store成立10周年,我们带回了其首批游戏之一,一款颇受欢迎的经典游戏。最初是为iPod制作,然后带到iPhone,粉丝们会喜欢抛光的重新设计,包括新角色,更具挑战性的游戏玩法,以及支持最新iPhone和iPod touch的精美图像。玩家第一次免费玩的话也会喜欢它。 欢乐德州扑克app让你能够获得众多的游戏功能,玩家可以和你的好朋友一起约会,在这里建造私人房间,调整游戏中的游戏规则,让你们玩到最经典的棋牌游戏。 喜欢这种风格游戏的玩家们,不妨下载欢乐德州扑克app畅玩一下吧! 「鲍老儿」,淳正之态。果然道:百宝装腰带,珍珠络 换换现金的棋牌游戏 元神天仙境 https://www.regs.rw/author/jue-zhan-bai-jia-le-2/ 才艺表演扑克牌斗牛牛牛牌技手法揭秘牌技教学揭秘2017-07-28 11:36:3000:530新浪微博 QQ QQ空间 微信展开 下载客户端 0 撩妹技能展示 话说撩妹子,网罗天下撩 不花钱的斗地主棋牌游戏 扑克牌牛牛怎么玩才能赢钱Android3.6.x以上,扑克牌牛牛玩才能赢钱客户端下载(Vv1.0.4是当下苹果IOS、安卓版流行速度快的APP(47.52M),房产系统数据精确及时,软件 好的斗地主棋牌游戏平台 米扑代理,全球领导的代理品牌,专注代理行业近十年,提供开放、私密、独享代理,并可免费试用米扑代理官网: proxy.mimvp.com 本文示例,是结合米扑代理的私密、独享、开放代理,专门研发的示例,支持 http、https的无密码、白名单ip、密码授权三种类型 示例中,用的插件 xpi 请到米扑代理官网,或米扑官方 github 下载本文,直接给出完整…

  60. “I bought my house, if I walk out to the end of my driveway, I could see the fireworks every Fourth of July,” she said. “And that would be really great if the Bears were to continue that tradition.” This Bonus Is Available For Customers 18+ Only. Begambleaware.org PCF Casino Bonus 2022 – BonusManiac As Raoul Meys, co-founder and CTO at Carbon Minds, explains, “When calculating product carbon footprints, one of the biggest challenges for chemical companies is finding the right data for supply chain emissions. They need comprehensive coverage of their complete supply chain, for every product, and a consistent methodology for all their data. The wide-ranging coverage Carbon Minds can provide, combined with a new system model that aligns with the BASF PCF methodology, is going to make it much easier for chemical companies to do consistent product carbon footprints for their full portfolio of products by including secondary data derived from the BASF methodology.” https://stjamesminorbaseball.net/garagesale/profile/renemauro827016/ But it also attacks on the real money blackjack front. Between its Casino Black, Casino Red live casino sections, and virtual games, Super Slots is home to 45 blackjack variants at the time of writing. These include Multi-Hand Blackjack, which has a max bet limit of $10,000, BlackJack 11, which comes with 500x, as well as blackjack tournaments. I will always remember Brian’s excellent advice, “If you view gaming as a form of recreation and entertainment, you will have a good time.” When playing Blackjack, it is always important to know what is the right strategy, and when to use it. Therefore, we explain some of the most common Blackjack strategies and the right time to use them below. The player to the left goes first and must decide whether to “stand” (not ask for another card) or “hit” (ask for another card in an attempt to get closer to a count of 21, or even hit 21 exactly). Thus, a player may stand on the two cards originally dealt to them, or they may ask the dealer for additional cards, one at a time, until deciding to stand on the total (if it is 21 or under), or goes “bust” (if it is over 21). In the latter case, the player loses and the dealer collects the bet wagered. The dealer then turns to the next player to their left and serves them in the same manner.

  61. traitement rhinite allergique pharmacie de garde dunkerque pharmacie angers place du lycee , pharmacie de garde aujourd’hui crepy en valois pharmacie ouverte paris medicaments non rembourses .

  62. Wonderful goods from you, man. I’ve understandd your stuff previious to and you’re just too
    wonderful. I really like what you have acquired here, certainly like what you are
    stating and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and yoou still care for to
    keep it sensible. I cant wait to read far more from you.
    This is actually a great site.

    Also visit my website; create a multiple choice exam (Wilfredo)

  63. Allowing access to a Schedule I drug under Right to Try could open a can of worms for the DEA, said Mitra, who previously did research licensed by the DEA. For instance, would they permit Baldeschwiler to buy only the synthetic psilocybin being tested to treat depression—or some broader array of products?, Mitra asked. Could she import them from other countries where the substance is legal? The most common negative side effect of psilocybin is the potential for a “bad trip,” Johnson said. High doses of psilocybin can cause overwhelming feelings of anxiety, fear and confusion that can lead to dangerous behavior if not used under medical supervision.   After injections, the 15 participants were found to have increased brain function in areas associated with emotion and memory. The effect was strikingly similar to a brain in dream sleep, according to Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris, a post-doctoral researcher in neuropsychopharmacology at Imperial College London and co-author of the study. http://healthcanadamedicalmarijuanarenewalform68.raidersfanteamshop.com/can-you-order-marijuana-online-in-canada-without-a-prescription-from-a-doctor Health Canada’s Substance Use and Addictions Program (SUAP) granted CNA $1.3 million to create a national nursing framework on the legalization of cannabis as well as e-learning modules to support clinical practice.* We help people for a living. It’s our passion. But that’s not where our passion ends—as individuals and collectively, we’re interested in art, music, design and much more. These interests and experiences make up the fabric of our culture which only exists because of our people. Interested in being one of those people? So are we. “From the product to the people and everything in between, working at Cova has been an absolute joy. Knowing I’m helping the cannabis industry grow, and people be successful, is such a rewarding feeling.” In addition to pre-employment, safety and technical training, the program includes knowledge of the Cannabis Act under Health Canada regulations and guidelines.

  64. The iѕsuе iѕ something too few folks are spеаking intellіgently about. I’m very happy I stumbled across this during my search for something relating to this.

  65. Right heree is the right site for everyone who really
    wantss to find out about this topic. You know a whole lot its almost hard to argue with you (not that I actually will
    need to?HaHa). You definitely put a new spin on a
    topic that has been written about for decades.

    Great stuff, just wonderful!

    Also visit my homepage 2010 toyota corolla engine parts diagram –
    Boyce

  66. Faantastic bet ! I wish to apprentice whilst you amend yoour site, how could i subscribe forr a weblog website?
    The account helped me a appropriate deal. I have been a
    little bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered shiny clear idea.

    Check out my page :: hoje improvement – Errol

  67. My bropther recommended I might like tuis blog.

    He was entirely right. This post actually made my day. Youu can not imagine simply how
    much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

    Also visit my web blog :: car repair dvd – Osaxen.Com,

  68. Witth havin so muhh written content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright infringement?
    My site has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either written myswlf or outsourced
    but it eems a lot of it is popping it up all over the internet
    without my agreement. Do you know any methods to helop reduce content from being ripped
    off? I’d definitely appreciate it.

    my blog: auto repair manual (Dyan)

  69. What about those with metastatic disease who are always in treatment can they get it brand cialis online Long Term Liver Disease, Treatment, and Mortality Outcomes Among 17, 000 Persons Diagnosed with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Current Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study Status and Review of Findings, Anne C

  70. With havin so mich content and articles do yyou ever run into any issues of plagorksm or copyright infringement?
    My website has a lot off unique content I’ve either written myself orr outsourced but
    it seems a lot of it iis popping it up all over the internet without my permission. Do you know any
    methods to help reduce content from being ripped off?
    I’d genuinely appreciate it.

    Also visit my web-site: galls street thunder wiring diagram