What is an implicit interface in templates?

Share the Article

Implicit interface is concept which is based on C++ templates. This concept works in conjunction with compile-time polymorphism.

Explicit Interface

In runtime polymorphism, the concept of interfaces is discussed in context of explicit interfaces. In such interfaces, the functions and behavior is explicitly visible, like,

  • Details regarding the member functions of class
  • Details of the member function signatures (parameters & return types)
  • Which all functions shall be private and which all public
class MFBase { public: virtual void funda1(int ix, float fy) = 0; virtual int funda2(std::string& str) = 0; };

The interface of class MFBase, explicitly defines 2 pure virtual functions. The return type and argument type specifies the explicit interface.

Implicit Interfaces

In world of templates, the concept of interfaces is discussed in implicit interface terms, like, what all valid expressions the interface need support. Actually, it is the use-model of expressions which define requirement on the interface (templates).

template<typename T> void doWork(T& w) { if (w.funda2("main") > 10 && w != nullptr) { } }


The implicit interface specified by type T should have following requirements:

  • Firstly, it must have a member function named funda2( ) which takes string and returns an integer type value.
  • Secondly, it must have a valid operator != function which can compare two objects of type T and return Boolean value.

Calling function with incompatible implicit template

In following example, the main function calls dowork<T> with MainFunda object. However, this class’s interface is not compatible as it does not define a not-equal-to operator (!=).

Therefore, the following program shall throw a compiler error

#include<iostream> //main header using namespace std;//namespace class MainFunda { public: int funda2(std::string str) { return str.size(); } }; template<typename T> void dowork(T& w) { if (w.funda2("main funda class") > 10 && w != nullptr) { cout << "Success" << endl; } } int main() { MainFunda m1; dowork(m1); return 0; }

Compiler error

calling function with incompatible implicit template

How to resolve the error

The error is fixed by providing not-equal-to (!=) function in MainFunda class. This shall satisfy the implicit interface requirement of template parameter in dowork. For any other template function the implicit interface requirement shall be different.

Now, in below code, new function is available (in bold)

#include<iostream> //main header using namespace std;//namespace class MainFunda { public: int funda2(std::string str) { return str.size(); } bool operator!=(nullptr_t np) { return 1; } }; template<typename T> void dowork(T& w) { if (w.funda2("main funda class") > 10 && w != nullptr) { cout << "Success" << endl; } } int main() { MainFunda m1; dowork(m1); return 0; }

Please note, it is not necessary to only have a user-defined operator !=, the requirement can be satisfied by other ways.

One Point

Here, the T can be converted to another type X & nullptr can be converted to some type Y. Therefore, if X and Y are comparable and there is implicit conversion between X and Y types, the requirement will be satisfied.

Main Funda: What all valid expressions the interface need to support specifies implicit interface

Related Topics:

What are dependent scope type in templates?
What is an implicit interface? 
Calling member functions in template base class
What is template meta programming (TMP)
How delete keyword can be used to filter polymorphism
Concept of Inline Functions
What is reference collapsing?
How std::forward( ) works?
How std::move() function works?
Smart Pointers: shared_ptr <T> 
Smart Pointers: unique_ptr<T>
What is move constructor ?
Understanding Constant Variables

Share the Article

181 thoughts on “What is an implicit interface in templates?

  1.   基于3.0T的时间飞跃磁共振血管成像(time?of?flight MR angiography,TOF?MRA)能清晰显示脑血管结构,是临床一线的无创脑血管成像技术。但这一成像对大血管远端分支、细小穿支动脉的评估无法满足临床需求。 上世纪二三十年代,广州战乱略平,市面繁荣,电影院散布于城市各处,其中豪华影院当然还是长堤为多。 说起广州的电影业,那可是紧跟时代潮流的,1895年电影诞生,1903年的西关高升茶楼里就有电影看了。到上世纪二三十年代,大大小小的影院已有30多家,当时的影院大多称为画院,分为五等,中华、永汉、明珠、金声等影院属第一等。一等影院总有上千座位,设施也很豪华,金声影院还尝鲜安装了空调,一到夏天,市民趋之若鹜,视之为豪华享受。 https://aamilmission.com/community/profile/sherlyndalziel2/ 扑克牌中的“Q”略有不同,Q牌上的画像全部是拿著一朵玫瑰花的伊莉莎白一世的画像。 “J”这张扑克牌,画的是一个保卫国王和皇后的“侍从”,所对应的单词是“Jack”。 “Jack”这个单词,在英文中是非常普通的一个男子名,类似于中国的“张三、李四”。因为 一个国家里 在本改进算法中,只对长度大于k的子序列递归调用快速排序,让原序列基本有序,然后再对整个基本有序序列用插入排序算法排序。实践证明,改进后的算法时间复杂度有所降低,且当k取值为 8 左右时,改进算法的性能最佳。算法思想如下:   大卫王(King David,公元前1011-971年)。以色列的第二个王,在以色列所有古代的国王中,他被描述为最正义的国王,并且是一位优秀战士、音乐家和诗人,传说他与巨人歌利亚的交战使他天下闻名。米开朗琪罗的雕像《大卫》即是描绘他,被视为西方美术史上最优秀的男性人体雕像之一。

  2. Play Blender Blitz Slot from Relax Gaming at this Casino Jackpot Capital Casino is giving away 250% Bonus + … Jackpot Capital casino at a glance. Best of Jackpot Capital casino bonus codes and promotions! USA & AU players accepted. 18+ only. Terms Apply, gamble responsibly. We are using cookies to give you the best experience on our website. Currently no bonus of this type Jackpot Capital Casino is giving away 200% Bonus + … There are various ways to make a deposit on Jackpot Capital online casino. You can use cards like VISA and MasterCard, prepaid cards like Paysafecard and Neosurf, and eWallets like Skrill, and Neteller. The site also accepts Bitcoin deposits. All transactions are free and instant, and the minimum amount you can send is $25. Jackpot Capital Casino also accepts all deposit methods for the welcome bonus and other promotions on the site. https://mybees.co.uk/community/profile/zdnemory3530089/ We are concluding this article on Slot Machines – Slots of Immortalityв„ў Free Pokies Download for PC with this. If you have any queries or facing any issues while installing Emulators or Slot Machines – Slots of Immortalityв„ў Free Pokies for Windows, do let us know through comments. We will be glad to help you out! Kyrgyz President Sadyr Japarov and his Tajik counterpart Emomali Rakhmon agreed to order a ceasefire and troop pullback in a meeting in Uzbekistan on Friday, the Kyrgyz president’s office said, after deadly clashes between the two Russian allies. The simplest way for players to find their favourite online games is to play pokies for free online. Players have unlimited access to free pokies via Australian casinos. You can review popular free pokies on youtube and other review websites. Trying varying pokies game themes can help identify favourite pokies online – these games range from adventure themes such as the jungle to Romance, action, or crime. Punters learn the gameplay, strategies and winning combinations, rules, and the importance of various game symbols.

  3. Açıklama: Natasha Starr and Tommy Gunn are ready to fuck hard while you all watch!
    She is looking hot in her bikini and sexy stripper heels.
    She is anxious to suck his dick and get him super hard for her.
    He first fucks her pussy hard and then she begs for him to put it in the ass.
    She rides his dick till she orgasms for all of you!

  4. Effect of perioperative lidocaine and cisplatin on metastasis in a murine model of breast cancer surgery clomiphene men Represented is the mean SEM expression value of PGR in four F and three G biologic replicates, normalized to the control, P P P PGR transcription start site, in MCF 7 and T47D cells, indicating that SPEN interacts with the PGR promoter in MCF 7 but not in T47D cells

  5. People fhcking on a ship She suckks lobcoock University upsskirt Cowlist addult
    lonks huge list Geneti engineering sperm Sexyal assault coordinated approach Womawn inn sexyy undrwear Proon tesn search Moms
    sucking boyy cock.
    Agernt teen fuction Hot gaay boy sucking Anann fucking Busty womn Cock mman smkall Rammstein sicks Testical injection poirn Listsn onlline to sexy
    radio Womns pussy with dog knot.
    Latino transvedstites Buff tyer pornography Free porn avi wwmv Tssa ssxual assaults
    Adult vieo stofes in westt virginia Oshaa sefure tthe blttom of ladder Big naked boners Tons of frfee hdntai Me shaving mmy
    Freee voyeur weeb piucs Diirty dare for teens Girls that seee thewre
    firsat big cocck Yong teeen mldel onn trampokine
    Nudust tsen lifestyle Faye reagan threesome Mothers haaving sex
    video links Gayy uck forus Dw +adult entwrtainment + texas.

    Cuute teen latna Nude wlman demonstrating various dildos Kenwood vintage yahoo
    grouup Maya golld anzl Sexyy wins swaping cumm Freee downlodfes aime cumm filled slts Hispanic dancer sexy Women having
    sex with elephantts Teenn softcoe nue girls.
    Freee big cocks tgpp Statisyics of tedn mothers Heterro blowjobs Women weet pussy gaoleries 1970’s short shorts + vitage clotthing Bikini sarongs Scary xxx
    vidro Bdsm archive Seexy janu.
    Process templates ffor virgin airlinees Free sex webcam chbating Poemon jasmine hentai Shhay
    lyyn biukini model Mature sexx tts sluts Reaal life coples sexx Guuy
    fuxks hiss Big boob aand thhong Clit torture bdsm ideas.
    Brother caught siszter having sex Cristina agulsra sexdy Lads forced too strip Nylon picture sex stoking Anall magic Ohioo adult
    swainger club reviews Young ones escorfs Young gil pornn bbbs
    Young een cock lover.
    A teens updide own lyrics Riley coick Celebritiy lesbians Non nude
    pantyhose Big sea kiss my irish asss Pregnant woman geetting
    fuck Ault comics nude Hard doggy stylke fuhking Nylon panties fetish.

    Xxx video conferencing Penjs growtgh boxers Freee homemawde maure fujck videos Porn stortmy complete vidreo Nude
    pyoto of blu cantrell Besst short erofic sex stories Gay menn iin pantyhose Asizn bbw facesitting Yahoo free
    Calgary eerotic esscort Sexyy mums tuges Nude teen in pajamas https://xtxxporn.com/tag/ibu-minta-di-pijitin/1/ Dailymotion softcore Orgasm toilet Asuan bridal fashion shokw Tina wallnan seex video Blakee mitchelol anal pics.

    Anal bestiality gallerys Bisexal dom feem orgy La vie enn rpse sex
    Cookware wwith bumps in thhe boittom Femdom viideo aall biting
    cock In pisdsing pussy Frree cum movke ssamples Poool party seymore’s fllag bikini Sex
    offenderrs rapidshare.
    Mariage xxxx Giirl sucks oown brothers cock Mature cutre Pornography or artt Bbbw posting wwbsites Sex dodd com Nude femalle exotuc Gaay
    nked cowbooy viideos Pantyhose shiny sexy.

    Gauge spreads ppussy Disney l porn Hot seexy blachk women street walkers Nked wopman in photo Publice porn Freee
    prno registrattion Vintage caar magaziknes forr sape Nicee
    aass pussy Streaming vido mature porn.
    Viorotica nude vvideos Watedr lewaking from botto of washing machine Marvvel miji faciazl light Sabrna teenage witch naked Yorkshire pubb strippers Bigget asian cream Penetrate prostatte orgsm tears Atlantic cty trannsexual escorts San antonio brest cancer doctors.

    Kaen byrd nnude Have safe sexx tie Sidde effects hiher premiums fromm adlt Break
    ffree hardcre info rdmember spring Cindy hope pornstar interview
    bibliography Freee adult wencams Hotel erotica island How loong can sperm survice Vibratinmg dilkdo 2 aaa
    Jamiie andd hiss friends porn Nakdd asian bkdy Umbilkical hernia vaginal bleedingg Milf cught boy masterbating Sexyy lightning Oldd gayy bsar tuube
    Nn russain teen Freee sex slave porn siters Fuck iit song download.

    Whatt ggod sas about sexx Frree free old hiry cut
    viddos Gayy aand lesbian biracial diversity Spanked womens bottoms
    Niice fucking porfn 4 carrot diamond vintage engagmet rings Anorexsic wwomen porn tuybe Free erotic
    membersips Frree online porn flash.
    Why does vagina taste badd Freee xxxx movie torrennt
    dlwnloads Please insert your penis in me Upload
    punished brutal fetish vids Sttory swapping singing wife Fucck
    bkonde video Adlt nonfunctional Outdoir rechead esbian Thee biggest aasshole lyrics.

    Nude sazunas inn berkshire Seexy linda basingstokme Breaqst extreme Models
    hairy armppits Futurama pprn leela Escordt inn russian toronto Ideas for cool tedn gorl room Seex andd
    the city coulfa Doees yyour penis row aftwr puberty.
    Circcumcision pejis infection Arab girl in threesome Pornstar hat logoo Megwn summers nyde
    aand naked movies Rugvy bottom Beautifrul exy ffemale feet Livve sexx in shower videks Ranma
    hentwi tthe shower Shanjty nde indonesia.

  6. алекс резорт абхазия адлер изумруд
    новогодние каникулы в крыму отель плаза железноводск утес официальный сайт
    гурзуф гостевые дома с бассейном мир путевок бакирово официальный сайт

  7. санатории за границей с лечением на море гостиница в старой ладоге
    гранд отель абхазия отзывы детский санаторий сосновый бор ковылкино санатории сочи с лечением сердечно сосудистой системы
    по годам в адлере гостиницы в мичуринске тамбовской области посуточно недорого санаторий сеченова ессентуки

  8. Below are sexiest xxx videos with dede torununu sikiyor izle in HD quality.
    Only with us you can see real fuck where the plot has
    dede torununu sikiyor izle. Moreover, you can choose in what quality to
    watch your favorite porn video, because all our videos are presented in different quality:
    240p, 480p, 720p, 1080p, 4k.

  9. отель в сочи с бассейном санаторий ижминводы отзывы
    г анапа пос витязево ул скифская 20 петро палас отель 5 отдых в крыму алушта
    гурзуф отдых бартон парк отель 3 крым большая алушта оренбург виктория

  10. город анапа санаторий анапа адрес бальнеологические курорты россии
    где отдохнуть на алтае с детьми санаторий машук аква терм г железноводск европейский гостиница тула
    отели в крыму с питанием эллада бассейн анапа санаторий васильевский казань

  11. санаторий днепр в крыму дешевые гостиницы кисловодска
    санаторий здравница абхазия йошкар ола гостиница первый поезд гостиница отрадное
    гостиница атлант лазаревское официальный сайт санаторий лечение кожных заболеваний зубово база отдыха волоколамский район

  12. лоо аквапарк отель пицунда пансионат литфонд цены
    крым отдых с бассейном гостиница магистраль обуховский санаторий цены
    9 ночей петрозаводск официальный хостел астра на арбате юнге

  13. спа отель море в алуште отзывы фото фонтанка 38 отель санкт петербург
    волков загородный клуб пенза отзывы о санатории целебный нарзан кисловодск 2021 отель крестовский остров санкт петербург
    пансионаты на берегу моря с питанием гостиницы в котово волгоградской области себеж гостиница

  14. кают компания клин отдых в семидворье крым
    хаял казань официальный сайт парк в геленджике с канатной пансионат фаворит кисловодск цены 2021
    санаторий бердянск как доехать до барвихи общественным транспортом грейс горизонт

  15. вилла аль марин массаж в коктебеле
    абхазия отдых на море отели пицунды снять номер в адлере недорого спа отель ривьера анапа
    гостиница с бассейном в ярославле геленджик жемчужина мыса севастополь гостиницы недорого

  16. sea galaxy hotel congress spa родник алтая белокуриха
    курорты адлера купить путевку в красноусольский санаторий отели в коломне с бассейном все включено
    очищение организма от шлаков и токсинов санаторий авито красные ворота гостиница москва peter hostel

  17. путевки в янгантау цена купить официальный сайт марата 11 отель гельвеция
    отдых в россии все включено цены санатории ленобласть отель флигель москва армянский переулок
    анапа отель белый песок санаторий русь кисловодск официальный сайт гостиница сова ростов на дону

  18. официальный сайт санатория москва в кисловодске белово гостиницы
    гостевые дома в ростове великом г липецк гостиницы вязники гостиница
    санаторий изумруд саратовская область гостиница в рыбинске цены kol gali resort spa казань

  19. кисловодск санаторий смена гостиницы в юрге
    военные санатории крыма конгресс отель ареал официальный сайт купавна спа острова сочи
    халва отель полянка санатории урала для отдыха с детьми гостиницы в новом афоне

  20. гаспра санаторий днепр официальный сайт гостиница победа владимир
    лесная здравница база отдыха белинского 30 екатеринбург надым гостиница надежда
    курорт белокуриха цены на путевки ливадия крым отели погода на демерджи крым

  21. ялта лор врач частная клиника империя сочи отель
    хостел в муроме недорого адреса цены гостиница люмьер светлогорск гостиница эдем барнаул
    историко краеведческий музей крепость кристалл палас в твери оазис уссурийск

  22. эпрон сочи золотой колос алушта официальный
    путевка в санаторий крым цена 2021 отель богатырь в адлере пента хотел москва
    отель империал ульяновск официальный сайт отдых с детьми на новый год 2022 гостиницы стерлитамака адреса и цены

  23. No direct connections of MPOA to the spinal centers for ejaculation were found on neuroanatomical studies; however, there are projections of MPOA to other regions in the brain involved in ejaculation, such as PVN, the periaqueductal gray, and the paragigantocellular nucleus nPGi 64 66 buy lasix online

  24. İnsanlar vitaminləri bitkidən və ya bitki mənşəli qida
    məhsullarından alırlar. Bitkilər, həmçinin fizioloji aktiv birləşmələri, məsələn, fenol birləşmələri, qlükozidləri, efir yağlarını, alkaloidləri və s.-ni sintez
    edir. Bu maddələrdən bəziləri müəyyən dərəcədə müxtəlif məhsulların qida və dadvermə üstünlüklərini müəyyən edir.

  25. The median number of follicles 18 mm in diameter and endometrial thickness of 7 mm on the day of HCG administration were comparable among the two groups; however, the trigger occurred one day earlier than CC group. buy nolvadex

  26. Of course, your article is good enough, majorsite but I thought it would be much better to see professional photos and videos together. There are articles and photos on these topics on my homepage, so please visit and share your opinions.

  27. 803548 271896I ought to admit that this really is 1 wonderful insight. It surely gives a company the opportunity to get in on the ground floor and truly take part in creating something special and tailored to their needs. 832617

  28. 38421 68718 An fascinating discussion is worth comment. I believe which you need to write far more on this topic, it might not be a taboo subject but generally folks are not enough to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers 237226

  29. 717909 459005Uncover out these pointers read on and learn to know how to submit an application doing this that you policy your corporation today. alertpay 832278

  30. 148784 442904Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research about this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I believe I learned much more from this post. Im extremely glad to see such fantastic information being shared freely out there. 621187

  31. 9168 686545Exceptional read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was performing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch because I located it for him smile So let me rephrase that. 45925

  32. 874993 353784I want to start a blog written by a fictitious character commenting on politics, current events, news etc..How?. 796417

  33. 180361 252771This really is truly fascinating, You are a extremely skilled blogger. Ive joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking a lot more of your magnificent post. Also, Ive shared your internet internet site in my social networks! 974617

  34. 961078 149499I dont normally take a look at these types of internet sites (Im a pretty modest person) – but even though I was a bit shocked as I was reading, I was surely a bit excited as nicely. Thanks for generating my day 59841

  35. 287691 594715Youre so cool! I dont suppose Ive read anything in this way before. So nice to locate somebody by original thoughts on this subject. realy thanks for beginning this up. this fabulous website is one thing that is required on the internet, a person with a bit of originality. beneficial project for bringing a new challenge towards internet! 708395

  36. 372780 222066Thanks for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research about this. We got a grab a book from our region library but I believe I learned a lot more from this post. Im very glad to see such fantastic info being shared freely out there. 952489

  37. I was just searching for this information for some time. After 6 hours of continuous Googleing, at last I got it in your website. I wonder what’s the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this type of informative sites in top of the list. Normally the top sites are full of garbage.

  38. 464796 987772There is an ending. Just remember that I meant for this to be an art game. I do feel like I spent an inordinate amount of time on the a lot more traditional gameplay elements, which might make the meaning of the game a bit unclear. In case you mess about with it though, youll discover it. 970351

  39. 992499 192553Dude.. My group is not considerably into looking at, but somehow I acquired to read several articles on your weblog. Its amazing how fascinating its for me to check out you fairly often. 25746

  40. Thanks for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research about this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more clear from this post. I am very glad to see such fantastic info being shared freely out there.

  41. you’re really a good webmaster. The website loading speed is incredible. It seems that you’re doing any unique trick. Also, The contents are masterwork. you’ve done a magnificent job on this topic!

  42. I’ve been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this sort of house . Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this site. Reading this information So i’m satisfied to show that I’ve an incredibly good uncanny feeling I came upon just what I needed. I so much for sure will make sure to don’t disregard this website and give it a look regularly.

  43. 147409 815285A person essentially help to make seriously articles I would state. This really is the first time I frequented your internet site page and thus far? I surprised with the research you made to make this specific publish incredible. Fantastic job! 126744

  44. 553324 966654Proper humans speeches should seat as properly as memorialize about the groom and bride. Beginer sound system about rowdy locations need to always not forget currently the glowing leadership of a speaking, which is ones boat. finest man speeches brother 29403

  45. 519666 954066This site is truly a walk-through it truly may be the details you desired relating to this and didnt know who ought to. Glimpse here, and youll undoubtedly discover it. 452544

  46. 459766 532765Hi, I think your website might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your blog in Opera, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, terrific blog! 503197

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *